Macam-macam Mengenai Retorik!

https://lukman87.wordpress.com/2010/05/25/power-of-rethoric/

Retorik Dan Pengaruh

Posted on Mei 25, 2010 by lukman87

Retorik satu seni berbahasa yang amat hebat.  Seorang yang bijaksana, tidak hanya cukup dengan ilmu yang ada di dada, namun, keperluan punyai kesenian dalam menyampaikan sesuatu maklumat dengan berkesan dan melekat pada nekad dan tekad para pendengar, itulah kunci dalam membawa sebuah perubahan.

Dalam penggunaaan seni retorik sebenarnya, tidak kiralah sesuatu perkara itu benar ataupun salah, selagi si pemidato punyai seni yang hebat, mampu membujuk, mampu mempengaruhi audiens.. itu sudah cukup baik.

Dalam corak politik malaysia, tidak kisahlah yang tunjuk baikkah, yang pura-pura sebagai pejuang rakyat, mahupun yang kononnya pejuang bangsa paling berjasa. Ilmu rethoric tidak boleh dipisahkan.

Namun, malangnya, andai ia dilakukan secara kontra dengan tindakan, akhirnya memakan diri sendiri.. contohnya..

http://www.erapakatan.com/berita/retorik_alam_melayu_membimbangkan/

Perkembangan ilmu retorik amat perlahan di alam Melayu

Thursday, 21 January 2010 3:23 PMOleh Mohd Ali Bakri

KUALA LUMPUR : Perkembangan ilmu retorik di alam Melayu amat perlahan dan mendukacitakan, kata siswazah peringkat falsafah Abu Hassan Abdul menerusi kajiannya berkaitan strategi retorik yang diluluskan oleh Jabatan Pengajian Media, Fakulti Sastera dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Malaya.

“Walaupun ilmu retorik sudah ribuan tahun berkembang di Barat dan Timur Tengah, tetapi perkembangan ilmu ini di alam Melayu khususnya di Malaysia, Brunei, Singapura dan Indonesia amat perlahan dan mendukacitakan,” tulisan beliau dipetik.

Abu Hassan berkata demikian menerusi kajian tesis disertasi bertajuk Strategi Retorik Dalam Autobiografi Melayu: Perbandingan Karya Hamka Dengan Shahnon Ahmad.

Tambah beliau, seorang sarjana Indonesia, Jalaluddin Rakhmat berkata, ilmu balaghah menjadi disiplin ilmu yang menduduki status yang mulia dalam peradaban Islam. Kaum Muslimin menggunakan balaghah sebagai pengganti retorika.

“Tetapi, warisan retorika Yunani, yang dicampakkan di Eropah abad pertengahan, dikaji dengan tekun oleh para ahli balaghah. Sayang, sangat kurang sekali studi berkenaan dengan kontribusi balaghah pada retorika moden.

“Balaghah, berserta ma’ani dan bayan masih tersembunyi di pesantran-pesantran dan lembaga-lembaga pendidikan Islam tradisional,” tulisan Jalaluddin Rakhmat dipetik melalui kajian Abu Hassan itu.

Kelesuan perkembangan disiplin retorik, tambah pengkaji retorik perbandingan antara Hamka dan Shahnon itu, adalah berpunca daripada faktor dalaman dan luaran.

“Seorang sarjana German, Arndt Graf dalam Bibliografi Retorik Melayu menjelaskan bahawa fenomena ini adalah kesan penjajahan Eropah. Menurut Graf, pengaruh bangsa-bangsa asing itu tidak hanya terasa sampai sekarang dalam bidang politik dan ekonomi, tetapi juga dalam bidang yang paling inti sebuah budaya iaitu dalam konsep-konsep tentang warisan bahasa, sastera dan budaya.

“Dengan kata lain, dunia Melayu yang menjadi korban penjajahan Eropah hampir-hampir melupakan disiplin retorik sebagai khazanah penting dalam persuratan Melayu sehingga istilah ‘retorik’ itu sendiri hanya dikenali dan digunakan secara meluas selepas era 90-an khususnya dalam media berbahasa Melayu,” katanya.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-rhetoric/

Aristotle’s Rhetoric

First published Thu May 2, 2002; substantive revision Mon Feb 1, 2010

Aristotle’s Rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric. Not only authors writing in the peripatetic tradition, but also the famous Roman teachers of rhetoric, such as Cicero and Quintilian, frequently used elements stemming from the Aristotelian doctrine. Nevertheless, these authors were interested neither in an authentic interpretation of the Aristotelian works nor in the philosophical sources and backgrounds of the vocabulary that Aristotle had introduced to rhetorical theory. Thus, for two millennia the interpretation of Aristotelian rhetoric has become a matter of the history of rhetoric, not of philosophy. In the most influential manuscripts and editions, Aristotle’sRhetoric was surrounded by rhetorical works and even written speeches of other Greek and Latin authors, and was seldom interpreted in the context of the whole Corpus Aristotelicum. It was not until the last few decades that the philosophically salient features of the Aristotelian rhetoric were rediscovered: in construing a general theory of the persuasive, Aristotle applies numerous concepts and arguments that are also treated in his logical, ethical, and psychological writings. His theory of rhetorical arguments, for example, is only one further application of his general doctrine of the sullogismos, which also forms the basis of dialectic, logic, and his theory of demonstration. Another example is the concept of emotions: though emotions are one of the most important topics in the Aristotelian ethics, he nowhere offers such an illuminating account of single emotions as in the Rhetoric. Finally, it is the Rhetoric, too, that informs us about the cognitive features of language and style.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato-rhetoric/

Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry

First published Mon Dec 22, 2003; substantive revision Wed Nov 12, 2008

Plato’s discussions of rhetoric and poetry are both extensive and influential. As in so many other cases, he sets the agenda for the subsequent tradition. And yet understanding his remarks about each of these topics—rhetoric and poetry—presents us with significant philosophical and interpretive challenges. Further, it is not initially clear why he links the two topics together so closely (he suggests that poetry is a kind of rhetoric). Plato certainly thought that matters of the greatest importance hang in the balance, as is clear from the famous statement that “there is an old quarrel between philosophy and poetry” (Republic, 607b5-6). In his dialogues, both this quarrel and the related quarrel between philosophy and rhetoric amount to clashes between comprehensive world-views—those of philosophy on the one hand, and of poetry or rhetoric on the other. What are these quarrels about? What does Plato mean by “poetry” and “rhetoric”? The purpose of this article is to analyze his discussions of rhetoric and poetry as they are presented in four dialogues: the Ion, the Republic, the Gorgias, and the Phaedrus. Plato is (perhaps paradoxically) known for the poetic and rhetoric qualities of his own writings, a fact which will also be discussed in what follows.

2 Respons

  1. Hello, just wanted to say, I liked this post.
    It was funny. Keep on posting!

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